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REPRESENTATIVITY

The habitat types protected within the Retezat National Park represent the particular range of habitats characteristic for this specific biogeographical region. Therefore, the areal-geographical analysis of the existent flora in Retezat N.P. , emphasizes the general euroasiatic (44%) background, upon which in different phyto-hystorical phases have interfered
the following elements: circumpolar (13%), alpine (9%), european (12%), southern (6%), endemics (7.2%), policore (3.4%) and adventive (1.4%). This analysis make a clear conformation, from the phyto-geographical point of view, of the Retezat N.P. belonging to the euro-siberian
region, the east-carpathian central-European sub-region, the Middle Carpathians unit.

The variate range of elements existent here, as a consequence of the different climatic influences and of the natural corridors which facilitated during the time their dispersal, have given a particular significance of the area within the origin region, in terms of important changes in structure and associated species. The vegetation is very rich because of its location between different vegetational provinces ( central European, Iliric, Balkan, Charpathian and Moesian ) and there are some endemic species.

NATURAL HABITATS

Generally, Retezat national Park have not been exposed to human intervention, preserving its natural habitats, due to the
fact that up to 1935 a big part of area was a royal territory for hunting and in 1935 was the first legally established national park in Romania. Its strictly protected area “Gemenele” shelters a natural prymary forest, totally unaffected, one of the last remained.

BIODIVERSITY

The biodiversity of Retezat N.P. approach within this project covers three levels of
biodiverity, namely ecosystems diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity.

Main ecosystems within national park are broad-leaved, coniferous and mixed forests, alpine and subalpine pastures with dwarf-pine, aquatic ecosystems - more then 80 glaciar lakes, streams, springs, rivers, waterfalls, peatbogs, and also caves, gorges…

From flora-genetic point of view Retezat N.P. represent a genetical centre for
Poa and Hieracium, and many specifics taxons for Romanian flora have here the initial habitat, as: Barbarea lepuznica, Pedicularis baumgartenii, Centaurea Retezatensis, Oxytropis jacquinii ssp. Retezatensis, Hypochoeris maculata var. carpatica, Festuca rupicola var. retezatensis and others.

The most representative population of marmots in Romania exists in Retezat N.P., as a consequence of reintroduction project and good coditions found here. The marmot population in Retezat is the source for repopulation of others alpine areas of Romania (eg. Success examples in Rodna National Park and Fagaras Mountain).

Account should be taken of the significance of Retezat N.P. for migratory species, which is a breeding place for 60
birds species, 11 possibly breedind and 11 passage migrants or vagrant ones.

urma2.gif (567 bytes)SEE ENDEMICS AND THREATHNED SPECIES >>>
urma2.gif (567 bytes)SEE THE NATURAL VALUE OF ROMANIA >>>

Flora - The general flora background is eurasiatic (44%) and from all the species identified in the area 5.2% are endemic. Thirty nine species are endemic to Retezat alone and one (Draba dorneri) covers just 400 sq.m. of earth! In the studies made on Retezat Mountain flora were identified 2 new for science taxons belonging to Briophyta.

Among the game species, the following can be found in the area: chamois
(450), bear (35), stag (30), wolf (15), marmotte (400 - 500), lynx (4), wild
cat (15), mountain cock (40), royal eagle (2-3). In brackets is the estimated
the minimum population size in the area.

Fauna
Invertebrates:
Gasteropoda 9 fam. with 29 sp.
Tardigrada 3 fam. with 59 sp.
Crustacea - Phyllopoda - 1 sp.
- Cladocera - 16 sp.
- Copepoda -10 sp.
- Decapoda - 6 sp.
Arachnida - Aranea - 48 sp.
- Opiliones - 9 sp.
- Ascarina - 2 sp.

Insecta - Orthoptera - 29 sp.
- Diptera - 111 sp.
- Thysanoptera - 1 sp.
- Odonata - 1 sp.
- Ephermeroptera - 1 sp
- Trichoptera - 39 sp.
- Lepidoptera - 65 sp.
- Coleoptera - 52 sp.
- Hymenoptera - 86 sp.

Vertebrates:
- Pisces - 12 sp.
- Amphibia - 5 sp.
- Reptilia - 8 sp.
- Aves - 82 sp.
- Mammalia - 26 sp.